Study of drought manifestation and its effect on the thermal regime of vegetation surface of crops under irrigation
Relevance of the topic. In recent years, irrigation management practices have faced new challenges related to climate change and the increase in the frequency and intensity of droughts in the southern regions. In addition, the latest technical and technological capabilities have emerged in irrigated agriculture to more effectively manage technological processes. All these processes occurring in real production and in the market of scientific and technical products, have determined the possibility and necessity of studying the influence of natural and agricultural conditions on the processes of energymass transfer in the "soil-plant-atmosphere" environment to improve management methods in modern irrigation conditions. Purpose of research is to investigate the features of formation of crop thermal regime in the conditions of air and soil drought manifestation under irrigation during 2018-2019. Research object. The research was carried out at the production fields of the farm “Freedom Farm International” in the Kakhovsky district of Kherson region during 2018-2019. Two experimental sites were equipped to carry out experimental studies on the crop rotation of "Gornostayevske -2". Methodology and Research methods. The methodology for the conduct of thermal water balance and phenological observations on the growth and development of crops at the experimental sites was applied. Standard field research techniques were used. Analytical, field, simulation modeling, mathematical statistics, geoinformation technologies (GIS), remote sensing of the Earth (RS) methods were used. Research results. As a result of the research in 2018-2019 a database of farm fields (crops, sowing dates, soil conditions, initial moisture reserves, irrigation machines and their characteristics) was created; phenological observations of plant growth and development were performed, heat and water balance calculations were made. It was established that to ensure optimal conditions for the use of thermal energy in different drought conditions, it is necessary to improve models and algorithms for operational planning of crop irrigation. Thus, to mitigate the influence of atmospheric drought, it is recommended to conduct refreshing irrigation, the timing of which can be determined on the basis of monitoring the temperature of the vegetation surface, using the data from the space images or ground-based observations. In addition, under drought conditions, in the case of applying water-balance methods used in irrigation management, it is necessary to adjust the biological coefficients of water consumption by crops, based on modeling the production process using the WOFOST model and identifying its parameters with the help of space images. The obtained new knowledge is aimed at improving irrigation management methods in modern conditions.
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