Systematization of floods and anti-flood measures
The problem of floods and conceptual issues of flood protection based on system analysis was considered. It is well-known that floods are among the most dangerous natural phenomena that have accompanied mankind since ancient times. Taking into account the global and multifaceted nature of the flood problem, there is a need to apply a systematic approach to its solution. The main areas in which the problem of floods has been systematically studied and solved in previous years were highlighted. It was found out that the most relevant is the area of developing the concept of flood protection. For the convenience of systematic research of floods and the development of the concept of flood protection, the terminological concepts of flood and flooding were clarified. The possibility and expediency of using the term "flood" as a universal in systematic research were substantiated. The systematic structuring of flood control measures was performed, which is based on the division of measures into two types of protection - situational and preventive. It is proposed to consider the general concept of flood protection as consisting of two alternative concepts: the concept of situational flood protection and the concept of preventive flood protection. It is proposed to choose alternative concepts using the method of functional-cost analysis. The concept of situational flood protection provides for short-term flood forecasting and implementation of situational flood protection measures during flood approach, passage, and end. The concept of preventive flood protection provides for long-term flood forecasting and implementation of one of preventive flood protection measures, among which the most common and promising are hydraulic measures. The systematization of hydraulic flood control measures was performed, which is based on the allocation of two opposite in nature functional alternatives in the structure of measures. By the first functional alternative, the flood flow is diverted from the flood risk zone through the river bed. By the second functional alternative, part of the flood flow is inhibited and delayed in front of the flood risk zone. A system scheme of hydro-technical flood control measures was developed, on which, following functional alternatives many technological alternatives of hydro-technical measures are given.
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