Low-carbon system of agricultural production in the Left Bank Forest-Steppe of Ukraine
Based on the research results it was determined that to significantly reduce the "carbon footprint" of the obtained products, it is necessary to optimize the distribution of produced biomass among food, energy raw materials, soil, and gaseous losses. When accumulating 10 t /ha of dry matter of plant biomass in the typical zonal crop rotation of the Left Bank Forest-Steppe, it is advisable to transform it into 0.8-1.0 t /ha of meat and dairy products, 1.3-1.5 t /ha of oil and sugar, 1.2-1.5 t /ha of methane and 0.6-0.8 t /ha of stable humus substances. In the process of such transformation, half of the organic carbon accumulated in the process of photosynthesis is used for the needs of the biological components of the agroecosystem, namely plants, animals, and microbial soil coenosis. Allocation of part of biomass for the energy supply of agro-technological processes is accompanied by minimization of the use of non-renewable energy sources. The final products extracted from the agro-ecosystem in the form of fats, proteins, and carbohydrates have mainly carbon-oxygen elemental composition. As a result, a closed cycle of macro- and microelements is formed, which, along with total disinfection of all wastes, minimizes the use of agrochemicals, the production of which is also accompanied by the entry into the atmosphere of large amounts of greenhouse gases (GHG). In the example of a typical Left Bank Forest-Steppe agricultural enterprise a close to an optimal model of agricultural production was worked out, which synchronized and balanced operation of components provides not only high economic efficiency but also in the long run allows to obtain additional profits from reducing GHG emissions. It is shown that when implementing the proposed system of agricultural production, its profitability will be about 3.5 thousand USD / ha, taking into account the value of emission quotas, this figure will increase by 20%. In doing so that does not take into account the possibility of increasing the competitiveness of products with a short carbon footprint, their labeling as organic and other benefits.
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