The main technological parameters of growing highly productive fodder crops on the drained lands of the humid zone of Ukraine
The most effective use of highly-productive crop species in fodder production and obtaining of sustainable yields of agricultural products is only possible when following scientifically sound technological processes of land reclamation in combination with a set of agronomic measures for their cultivation.
The aim of the research is to develop the main technological parameters of growing highly productive fodder crops (Japanese millet, amaranth and fodder beans) on the drained lands in the humid zone of Ukraine.
The results of research on determining the main technological parameters of growing highly-productive fodder crops (Japanese millet, amaranth and fodder beans) on drained lands are highlighted.
It was specified that when cultivating these crops it is necessary to adhere to the optimal sowing dates taking into account the purpose of their use (green mass, grain). When they are sown too early there is a decrease in field seed germination and increase of germination period, thinning of crop plantings, intensive spread of weeds and also the probability of crops damage by spring frosts increases. When they are sown too late, especially in case of small-seeded crops (amaranth), drying of the top layer of soil is possible, which is unacceptable in the period of germination and emergence of seedlings. The most favorable conditions for the formation of herbage when cultivating on drained peat soils are formed when the crops are sown on May 15 (by 8.1–16.7% more of herbage and by 2.1–9.6% of dry matter is formed).
The main technological parameters of cultivating Japanese millet, amaranth and fodder beans are determined, incl. by phases of development and taking into account the critical periods of their optimal moisture supply, agronomic measures and optimal fertilizer rates.
The admissible terms in which the reclamation system should provide drainage of excess waters and the recommended levels of ground waters and the humidity rates in a soil root layer in the vegetative period at the crop cultivation were determined.
It was specified that during the growing season the needs of Japanese millet, amaranth and fodder beans in moisture in the soil root layer change depending on their biological needs and current meteorological conditions. Soil moisture rates were specified as following: on peat soils the optimal one is 65–75%, the lowest permissible one in the summer period is 55–60%; on mineral soils, respectively - 65-80% and 55-60% of FMHC.
It was established that modern climate change in the Western Polissya of Ukraine (uneven distribution of precipitation during the growing season, abnormal average daily air temperature fluctuations and low night air temperatures (˂10oС in summer months) have a negative impact on the cultivation of heat-loving crops (Japanese millet). In the context of climate change, it is necessary to provide for the accumulation of sufficient water volumes in storage tanks or reservoirs to supply them for irrigation of cultivated crops during dry growing seasons and to ensure optimal water regulation parameters.
On radioactively contaminated reclaimed lands of the Chemerne peat-bog array with a rate of 137Cs radionuclide contamination of up to 1 Ki/km2, the contamination rates in the vegetative mass of Japanese millet, amaranth and fodder beans during the research years was within acceptable limits, so it can be used freely for feeding animals.
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