Potential of bioproductivity of drained lands of Ukraine
The purpose of the work is based on the generalization of the results of long-term researches of scientific institutions of the NAAN in the Livoberezhnyy, Pravoberezhnyy, Western Polissya, as well as on intrazonal soils of river floodplains to substantiate the need to restore the effective use of melioration arable land and natural forage lands of the humid zone on the basis of evaluation of their potential bioproductivity for optimization of water -air, nutrient regimes, crop rotation and other factors. In the conditions of the floodplain of the rivers in the vegetation specialization of agrarian production, the maximum productivity of the crop rotation: 1, 2 - corn for grain, 3 - soybeans, buckwheat on the background of the mineral fertilizer system will reach the level of 9 t f.unit / ha. For livestock specialization in crop rotation, which provides close to optimal ration of feeding of milk cattle: 1, 2 - corn for grain, 3 - soybeans, 4 - corn for silage, perennial grasses, sylvia permeated leaves, productivity of arable land under optimal conditions of moisture and nutrition will be 10 tons of f. units per hectare. According to the bioenergy specialization of production activity, it may be most expedient to grow Salix triandra L. with a difference in terms of planting in 1 year - 40 t / ha of dry matter.
Regarding the conditions of the Left Bank Polissya for well-cultivated sod- podzolic soils in the conditions of humidity and nutrition, which are close to optimal ones, it is possible to recommend 4-field crop rotation: 1 - winter and spring crops, 2 - clover, lupine, 3 - milk-waxy corn or grain and 4 - potatoes with an expected productivity of 12 t f.unit / ha. Such crop rotation, which involves the production of coarse and juicy fodder, is suitable for introduction in the presence of a developed livestock industry. In the absence of livestock breeding with a purely planting crop specialization, it is possible to recommend a 3-fiel crop rotation with the production of only commercial crop production: 1 - winter and spring crops, 2 - potatoes, 3 - maize for grain and productivity level of 12 t f. unit / hа.
In the Right-bank Polissya, the highest yield was observed at the cultivation of a mixture of grass (Phléum praténse L. + Bromus inermis + Agropyrum glaucum R.) - 9 t / ha of dry matter. In the meliorationed arable lands of the region, the expected level of productivity of crop rotation: 1 - cereals 2 - milk-waxy corn, 3 - lupine, 4 - clover will be at level of 11 t / ha of dry matter. The bioenergy trend of agrarian production is the productivity of crop rotation: 1 - maize for silage, 2 - clover can reach 13 t / ha of dry matter.
In Western Polissya, the grass-mixed Galega oritalis L.50% + Bromus inermis 50% provide at a level of 10 t f. unit / ha. On organic soils - feed crop rotation: 1 - Rhaponticum Transbaikal, 2 - Galega oritalis L., 3 - Raphanus sativum d., 4 – Echinochloa flumentacea will be able to receive 17 t f.unit / ha, on sod-podzolic soils of crop rotation: 1 - Rhaponticum Transbaikal, 2 - Lotus corniculatus, 3 - Raphanus sativum d., 4 - Echinochloa flumentacea will be able to receive at the level of 12 t f. unit / ha.
From one-year grassy energy crops, sugar sorghum produces - 22 t / ha of dry matter, from perennial herbaceous Miscánthus - 24 t / ha of dry matter, Salix triandra L. provides 55 t / ha for the 3rd year, Salix viminalis L. of domestic selection - 52 t / ha, Swedish selection - 84 t / ha of dry matter.
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