OPERATIONAL IRRIGATION MANAGEMENT: MODERN CHALLENGES, REALITIES AND VISIONS
Introduction. The current challenges in water and agriculture management in Ukraine wield major influence on the development of reclamation science and practice. These challenges and the realities of irrigated farming require a revision of traditional decision-making methods and criteria to ensure resource-efficient irrigation management. Analytical and experimental studies were conducted to evaluate existing irrigation practices, develop a vision for its development over the next 20-30 years, and evaluate the prospects for the use of certain innovative products that can be implemented for irrigation management under existing economic conditions and in the future.
The purpose of the research was to improve the methods of operational irrigation management and support the adoption of appropriate strategic decisions to achieve resource efficiency in irrigated agriculture. The following tasks were solved: to investigate the temporal and spatial variability of the natural and economic conditions of irrigation use; to determine the basic directions of models and algorithms improvement for operational irrigation planning taking into account the spatial and temporal variability of natural and economic conditions of real production; to evaluate perspective directions of development of irrigation planning methods to ensure resource efficiency of management in the current agricultural practice.
Methods and methodologies. The research was conducted during 2012-2019 at the farms of Kherson and Zaporizhzhya regions. Testing and pilot implementation of the operational irrigation planning information system “GIS Polyv” has been carried out. The studies were carried out on 306 fields, the total area of which was 9266.09 ha, the main crops were soybean, sunflower, winter wheat, alfalfa and winter rape. Research methods included on-site observations, modelling, remote sensing, and method of system analysis.
Results and discussion. The role of on-site and space agro-monitoring for the correction of bioclimatic coefficients of crop water consumption taking into account the space-time variability of the actual biomass has been substantiated and demonstrated. For the adaptation of irrigation management to the conditions of air drought, it is proposed to use an additional criterion for making decisions on crop cooling, which is determined by the maximally permissible temperature duration at the vegetation surface above the physiologically acceptable level. It is established that under conditions of air drought, in addition to slowing the growth of biomass, physiological processes occur in the leaves and reproductive organs of plants, due to the increase in the temperature of the vegetation surface. According to studies of energy transfer processes in crops during periods of atmospheric drought, an increase in the use of a share of thermal energy for turbulent exchange has been found compared to the volumes of energy that is evaporated.
The vision of the future development of methods of operational irrigation planning based on modern agricultural information platforms has been presented. It will allow to choose a method of operational irrigation management, based on the capabilities of each farm economy and to provide "on-line" consulting for water user organizations or farm personnel.
2. Ostapchyk, V.P., Kostromyn, V.A., & Koval, A.M. (1989). Ynformatsyonno-sovetuiushchaia systema upravlenyia oroshenyem [Information Advisory Irrigation Management System]. Kiev: Urozhai. [in Ukrainian].
3. Zhovtonoh, O.I. (2001). Pryntsypy ta metody planuvannia adaptyvnoho zroshennia [Adaptive irrigation planning principles and methods]. Extended abstract of Doctor’s thesis. Kyiv: IWPiM. [in Ukrainian].
4. Romashchenko, M. I., Drachynska, E. S., & Shevchenko, A. M. (2005). Informatsiine zabezpechennia zroshuvanoho zemlerobstva. Kontseptsiia, struktura, metodolohiia orhanizatsii [Information support for irrigated agriculture. The concept, structure, methodology of the organization]. Kyiv: Ahrarna nauka. [in Ukrainian].
5. Kovalchuk, P. I., Mykhalska, T. O., Kovalchuk, V. P., & Pysarenko, P. V. (1999). Ekoloho-ekonomichne obhruntuvannia polyvnykh ta zroshuvalnykh norm na osnovi informatsiinykh tekhnolohii [Ecological and economic substantiation of irrigation norms on the basis of information technologies]. Melioratsiia i vodne hospodarstvo, 86, 21-27. [in Ukrainian].
6. Stratehiia zroshennia ta drenazhu v Ukraini na period do 2030 roku. (2019). Kabinet Ministriv Ukrainy. Rozporiadzhennia vid 14 serpnia 2019. № 688-r. Kyiv. [in Ukrainian].
7. Theory and application of Agricultural Innovation Platforms for improved irrigation scheme management in Southern AfricaInternational. (2017). Journal of Water Resources Development, Vol. 33, N. 5, 804–823. Retrieved from: https://doi.org/10.1080/07900627.2017.1321530.
8. Innovation and Water Management for Sustainable Development in Agriculture. (2015). General Directorate of IICA. ISBN: 978-92-9248-583-2.
9. Zhovtonoh, O.I., Filipenko, L.A., Demenkova, T.F., Babych, V.A., & Polishchuk, V.V. (2014). Komp’yuterna prohrama. Informatsiyna systema operatyvnoho planuvannya zroshennya IS GIS Polyv [Computer program Informational system of irrigation planning] Svidotstvo pro reyestratsiyu avtorsʹkykh prav na tvir № 54650 vid 07.05.2014. [in Ukrainian].
10. Zhovtonog, O., Hoffmann, M., Polishchuk, V., & Dubel, A. (2011). New planning technique to master the future of water on local and regional level in Ukraine. Journal of Water and Climate Change, 2, 2-3, 189–200.
11. Steiner, J. L., Kanemasu, E. T., & Hasza D. (1983). Microclimatic and crop responses to center pivot sprinkler and to surface irrigation. Irrigation Science, 4, 3, 201-214.
12. Fieldlook (n.d.). eleaf.com. Retrieved from: https://eleaf.com/?page_id=3174
13. Bastiaanssen, W.G.M, Noordman, E.J.M., Pelgrum, H., David, G., Thoreson, B.P., & Allen, R.G. (2005). SEBAL model with remotely sensed data to improve water resources management under actual field conditions, Irrig. Drain. Eng., 131, 85–93.
14. Tanner, B. D. (1988). Use requirement for Bowen ratio and eddy correlation determination of evaporation, Planning Now for Irrigation and Drainage in the 21 Century, Irrig. And Drain. Div., Am. Soc. Civil Eng., NY, 605-616.
15. Todd R.W., Evett S.R., & Howell, T.A. (2000). The Bowen ratio-energy balance method for estimating latent heat flux of irrigated alfalfa evaluated in a semi-arid, advective environment, Agricultural and Forest Meteorology, 103, 335–348.
16. Levent Şaylan, Yunus Özkoca, Barış Çaldağ, Fatih Bakanoğulları (2018). Comparison of Micrometeorological Methods used for the Determination of Actual Evapotranspiration. International Journal of Crop Science and Technology,13-22.
17. Tekelioğlu, B., Büyüktaş, D., Baştuğ, R., Karaca, C., Aydinşakir, K., & Dinç, N. (2017). Use of Crop Water Stress Index for Irrigation Scheduling of Soybean in Mediterranean Conditions. Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, 18(6), 1-8. Retrieved from: https://doi.org/10.9734/JEAI/2017/37058.
18. Zhovtonoh, O.I., Filipenko, L.A., Polishchuk, V.V., Saliuk, A.F., & Khomenko, A.V. (2018). Zakonomirnosti enerhomasoobminu v seredovyshchi «hrunt-roslyna-atmosfera» v suchasnykh klimatychnykh ta hospodarskykh umovakh vykorystannia zroshennia. [Patterns of energy-mass exchange in soil-plant-atmosphere environment under current climatic and economic conditions for irrigation]. Melioratsiia i vodne hospodarstvo, 2,19-28. [in Ukrainian].
19. Irmak, S., Odhiambo, L.O., Kranz, W.L., & Eisenhauer, D. E. (2011). Irrigation Efficiency and Uniformity, and Crop Water Use Efficiency. Biological Systems Engineering. Retrieved from https://digitalcommons.unl.edu/biosysengfacpub/451
20. Shatkovskyi, A.P. (2016). Naukovi osnovy intensyvnykh tekhnolohii kraplynnoho zroshennia prosapnykh kultur v umovakh Stepu Ukrainy [Scientific bases of intensive technologies of drip irrigation of cultivated crops under the conditions of the Steppe of Ukraine]. Extended abstract of Doctor’s thesis. Kyiv: IWPiM. [in Ukrainian].
21. Gadzalo, Ya., Romashchenko, M., Kovalchuk, V., Matiash, T., & Voitovich O. (2019). Using smart technologies in irrigation management 3th World Irrigation Forum (WIF3) 1-7 September 2019, Bali, Indonesia, Full Paper of WIF3 and International Workshop, Development for Water, Food and Nutrition Security in a Competitive Environment, 954-960.