STATUS AND ASPECTS OF STUDYING THE PESTICIDES INFLUENCE ON PRODUCTIVE PROCESSES AND ENVIRONMENTAL SAFETY
Relevance of research. Ukraine's agriculture is one of the world leaders in production and export. The assortment of chemical plant protection products by status on 2019 which used in agriculture has more than two thousand preparations based on hundreds of active substances. In today's difficult climatic conditions, crop growing requires the use of a scientific approach, innovative technology and the introduction of new technologies. One of these is pestigation (irrigation pesticide application), which allows a uniform distribution and precise placement of chemicals independently of weather or field conditions. The selection of a modern assortment of chemicals that can be effectively used in pest control against certain harmful organisms is one of the actual directions of irrigation and requires research in different soil and climatic zones of Ukraine.
The purpose of the study is to investigate the peculiarities of the pesticides application in integrated protection systems and the environmental safety of their use on the example of non-target objects.
Materials and methods of research. Methods of scientific analysis and synthesis, generalization of the results of field and laboratory analyzes were used in the study, which included:
- phyto-expertise of seed and plant material;
- rapid analyzes during the growing season of crops;
- agrochemical analysis of soils;
- detailed soil analysis;
- study of environmental hazards of chemicals for aquatic, soil and terrestrial ecosystems:
- detailed analysis of water.
The application of plant protection products makes it possible to improve the ecological condition of agrocenosis, the conditions of the working area, while increasing crop productivity. Application methods of plant protection reagents with irrigation water and combined protection schemes for row crops, which are used in integrated crop protection systems, are presented. It has been established that one of the significant disadvantage of application plant protection reagents with irrigation water is the limitation of the pesticide treatment time. The developed combined scheme for the row crops protection provides for the prophylactic treatment of pesticide in a short time by the traditional way, depending on the phytosanitary condition of the crops, which provides a significant increase of yield compared to other methods of application. It has also been proven that effectiveness of plant protection reagents is not the same against certain targets upon application different methods of pesticides treatment . Therefore, it is noted that for developing technological schemes for protecting crops against harmful organisms, it is necessary to thoroughly study the phytosanitary situation in the area where crops are located and to determine the targets for which pesticides are applied.
The directions of research on the influence of pesticides on ecosystems are given, namely, the environmental safety of pesticides for the soil ecosystem (toxic effects on groundworms and microorganisms), the aquatic ecosystem (toxic effects on fish, daphnia, and algae) and the terrestrial ecosystem (toxic effects on birds and bees). It is noted that one of the methods to prevent the harmful effects of toxic substances on non-target objects of ecosystems is hygienic regulation of their use. Ecological and toxicological assessment of pesticides was carried out by determining their toxicity after a single injection in a sharp experiment, which allows determining the species susceptibility of a living organism to a chemical reagent. Probit’ analysis method was used to calculate the toxicity in the analysis of the various drugs effects which is the most exact at the present time. The influence of agrochemicals on the structural and functional changes in the microbial cenosis of the soil was determined by a quantitative analysis of agronomical valuable ecological and trophic and taxonomic groups of microorganisms, by assessing the rate of respiration of the soil by the amount of carbon dioxide released.
The tendencies of search and fundamental research in the water management field and land reclamation were analyzed in order to improve modern approaches to plant growing.
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