DEVELOPMENT AND IMPLEMENTATION OF HIGH-EFFICIENCY AND RESOURCE-SAVING TECHNOLOGIES FOR AGRICULTURAL WATER SUPPLY AND WASTEWATER DISPOSAL
Introduction. Scientific support for measures aimed at providing centralized water supply to rural settlements has been entrusted to the Department of Agricultural Water Supply of UkrNIIGiM (now the Institute of Water Problems and Land Reclamation of NAAS) since 1991.
The main task of this department of the institute was to develop scientific and technical solutions for reliable supply of all consumers in rural areas with water in the required quantity, of the proper quality and with the necessary free pressure while minimizing capital and operating costs, rational and economic use of water resources and environmental protection from pollution by the wastewaters.
Suggested scientific approaches:
- decentralization of the withdraw processes, purification, supply and distribution of water with the splitting into drinking and technological water;
- reliable supply of high quality drinking water and technological water with low cost;
- creation of closed water supply systems at agricultural enterprises with minimal consumption of fresh water and use of treated wastewater for technical needs or irrigation of agricultural crops, and sludge - for soils fertilizing;
- development of new water treatment technologies based on the reproduction of intensified factors of the biogeochemical cycle of water in the course of its natural self-purification in order to reduce the cost of the water treatment process and increase the barrier capacity of existing structures.
- reliable protection of territories against flooding by filtrated waters from reservoirs using these waters for agricultural water supply and irrigation;
- optimization of the interoperability of all interacting structures with systems to minimize the per unit energy consumption for water transportation.
Prospects. One of the main fundamental theoretical questions that need further development is new approaches to filtering theory. Since the time of D.M. Mintz this research direction have been stagnated. This is especially felt in domestic developments, despite the fact that there has been a significant breakthrough in the creation of filter materials (mainly in the case of filter materials that are lighter than water, which were not used at the time of D.M. Mintz). A breakthrough in the development of measuring apparatus has also taken place, and it now allows measuring the electrokinetic and dimensional characteristics of colloids in water source and filter loading grains, which makes it possible to consider the filtration process and especially the adsorption of colloids on the surface of filter loading grains from a different angle.
Conclusions. The results of scientific researches carried out in the laboratory of agricultural water supply for 28 years of its existence, and were implemented at the existing local and group agricultural water supply systems. Materials of scientific researchers are published in 4 monographs and more than 100 articles and conference materials in domestic and foreign scientific journals. The proposed solutions are patented in 46 patents for inventions. Using the research of the laboratory staff, 3 doctoral dissertations (V.P. Khoruzhyi, V.G. Novokhatnii, and D.V. Charnyi) and 14 PhD theses were defended.
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