RESEARCH OF WATER OBJECTS OF UKRAINE USING THE DATA OF REMOTE SENSING OF THE EARTH
Traditional monitoring of water bodies has some advantages and disadvantages. The main disadvantages - the impossibility of simultaneous study of many waters bodies, the complexity of the study of distant objects. In addition, traditional methods are time consuming and costly. At the same time, remote sensing of the Earth and methods of processing satellite data using GIS technologies have many advantages. The results of studies of water bodies of Ukraine based on the use of remote sensing data are presented. These studies relate to the history of water bodies, their morphometric characteristics, water temperature, ice regime, overgrowing, "blooming" of water and even its quality. It has been established that the length of rivers, especially small ones, is usually longer than is considered. This is based on satellite imagery, which is much more accurate than maps where small meanders cannot be displayed in detail. Based on remote sensing data, it was specified the water area and the useful volume of the Dnipro’s Reservoirs. In all cases, these parameters turned out to be smaller than it is considered. The main causes are the sedimentation, the overgrowing, the separation of some areas for human needs. As a result, the water area of the Kyivske Reservoir decreased by about 100 km2 relative to the design value. The similar result was obtained for others reservoirs. The only exception is the Kakhovskyi Reservoir. Having considering the form of useful volume of reservoirs as a truncated cone, it was determined their modern volume. It was obtained, that this volume is about 1.5 km3 less that it considered. This means that the Dnipro’s reservoirs cannot perform flow regulation in accordance with the project. A characteristic feature of the Dnieper reservoirs is overgrowing. Using satellite images obtained in the warm and cold season, it was determined that water plants occupy tens of square kilometers. The widespread specie, namely in Kyivske and Kanivske Reservoirs, is water chestnut. The most important features of the water temperature in the Dnipro Reservoirs were identified. Important factors affecting the temperature of the water are the location of the water bodies, their depth and the like. Significant is the impact of the operation of hydroelectric plants located upstream. In summer, the water temperature in the lower reaches of the hydroelectric power station is lower than in natural conditions, in the cold period the situation is the opposite. Based on remote sensing data, the main features of the ice regime of the Dnieper reservoirs were established. Like the water temperature, the operation of the hydroelectric power station has a significant impact on the spread of the ice. The longer existence of the ice cover, as a rule, is observed on the large Kremenchutske Reservoir, which was created in the middle of the cascade. The shortest existence of ice cover is characteristic of the Kakhovske Reservoir, which has the most southerly location. There are large differences in the ice cover in north-eastern and south-western parts of this reservoir. Among six reservoirs of Dnipro’s Cascade the largest algae bloom is observed in the Kremenchuts’ke Reservoir, the smallest one in Kyivske one. During the year the largest algae bloom is observed in August, first of all in case of warm and sunny weather. The essential impact on algae bloom has the wind. This factor causes the larger algae bloom near right south-western bank of Kremenchutske and Kamiianske Reservoirs comparable with left one. The main reason of this is the dominance in this region of north-eastern wind during July-August.
2. Vyshnevskyi, V.I. (2019). Prostorovo-chasova minlyvist “tsvitinnia” vody u dniprovskykh vodoskhovyshchakh [Spatio-temporal variability of algal bloom in the Dnipro Reservoirs]. Ukrainskyi zhurnal dystantsiinoho zonduvannia Zemli [Ukrainian Journal of Remote Sensing], 20, 18–27. [in Ukrainian].
3. Vyshnevskyi, V.I., & Shevchuk, S.A. (2016). Otsiniuvannia stanu vodnykh obiektiv Kyieva za danymy dystantsiinoho zonduvannia Zemli [Estimation of the status of water bodies of Kyiv based on remote sensing data]. Ukrainskyi zhurnal dystantsiinoho zonduvannia Zemli [ Ukrainian Journal of Remote Sensing], 11, 4–9. [in Ukrainian].
4. Vyshnevskyi, V.I., & Shevchuk, S.A. (2017). Viter yak chynnyk vplyvu na temperaturu i tsvitinnia vody u dniprovskykh vodoskhovyshchakh [Wind as a factor of influence on temperature and algal bloom in Dnipro Reservoirs]. Pratsi Tsentralnoi heofizychnoi observatorii [Proceedings of the Central Geophysical Observatory], 13 (27), 63–65. [in Ukrainian].
5. Vyshnevskyi, V.I., Shevchuk, S.A., Bondar, A.Ie., & Shevchenko, I.A. (2017). Suchasna ploshcha dniprovskykh vodoskhovyshch [The modern area of the Dnipro Reservoirs]. Ukrainskyi zhurnal dystantsiinoho zonduvannia Zemli [Ukrainian Journal of Remote Sensing], 14, 4–11. [in Ukrainian].
6. Vyshnevskyi, V.I., Shevchuk, S.A., & Shevchenko, I.A. (2017). Suchasni rozmiry dniprovskykh vodoskhovyshch [Current sizes of the Dnipro Reservoirs]. Vodne hospodarstvo Ukrainy [Water management of Ukraine], 4, 19–25. [in Ukrainian].
7. Shevchuk, S.A., Kozytskyi, O.M., & Vyshnevskyi, V.I. (2017). Suchasnyi stan oz. Almazne ta zakhody z yoho ekolohichnoho ozdorovlennia [The current state of the Almazne lake and measures for its environmental improvement]. Melyoratsyia i vodne hospodarstvo [Land reclamation and water management], 105, 39–45. [in Ukrainian].
8. Vyshnevskyi, V.I., & Shevchuk, S.A. (2018). Vykorystannia danykh dystantsiinoho zonduvannia Zemli u doslidzhenniakh vodnykh obiektiv Ukrainy [Use of remote sensing data in study of water bodies of Ukraine]. Kyiv, Interpress LTD. [in Ukrainian].
9. Vyshnevskyi, V.I., & Shevchuk, S.A. (2018). Vykorystannia danykh suputnykiv Aqua i Terra u doslidzhenniakh “tsvitinnia” vody dniprovskykh vodoskhovyshch [The use of Aqua and Terra satellites in study of algal bloom of the Dnipro Reservoirs]. Pratsi Tsentralnoi heofizychnoi observatorii [Proceedings of the Central Geophysical Observatory], 14 (28), 44–49. [in Ukrainian].
10. Drozd, N.Y. (1953). Materyaly po typyzatsyy rek Ukraynskoi SSR [Materials for classification of rivers of the Ukrainian SSR]. Hydrohrafycheskye kharakterystyky rek Ukraynskoi SSR [Hydrographic characteristics of the rivers of the Ukrainian SSR]. Vol. 2. Kyiv, Yzdatelstvo AN USSR. [in Russian].
11. Yatsyk, A.V., Tomiltseva, A.I. & in. (2003). Pravyla ekspluatatsii vodoskhovyshch Dniprovskoho kaskadu [Rules for operation of reservoirs of the Dnipro Cascade]. Kyiv, Heneza. [in Ukrainian].
12. Shevchuk, S.A., & Vyshnevskyi, V.I. (2016). Vykorystannia danykh suputnyka Landsat 8 dlia vyznachennia mikroklimatychnykh osoblyvostei Kyieva [Use of Landsat 8 satellite data to determine microclimatic features of Kyiv]. Ukrainskyi zhurnal dystantsiinoho zonduvannia Zemli [Ukrainian Journal of Remote Sensing], 10, 4–9. [in Ukrainian].
13. Shevchuk, S.A., & Vyshnevskyi, V.I. (2016). Chy ie ozero Kachyne ozerom? [Is Lake Kachine a lake?]. Suchasni problemy arkhitektury ta mistobuduvannia [Modern problems of architecture and urban planning], 46, 362–366. [in Ukrainian].
14. Shcherbak, V.Y., & Maistrova, N.V. (2001). Fitoplankton kyivskoi dilianky Kanivskoho vodoimyshcha ta chynnyky, shcho yoho vyznachaiut [Phytoplankton of the Kyiv section of the Kaniv Reservoir and the factors which determine this]. Kyiv: Institute of Hydrobiology, NAS of Ukraine. [in Ukrainian].
15. Romashchenko, M.I., Yatsiuk, M.V., Shevchuk, S.A., Vyshnevskyi, V.I., Savchuk, D.P. (2018). About Some Environmental Consequences of Kerch Strait Bridge Construction. Hydrology. V. 6, №1, 1–8.
16. Shevchuk, S.A., Vyshnevskyi, V.I. (2017). The use of remote sensing data to evaluate the state of the Danube River downstream and adjacent lakes. XXVII Conference of the Danubian countries on hydrological forecasting and hydrological bases of water managrment. Golden Sands, Bulgaria, 616–621.
17. Vyshnevskyi, V.I., Shevchuk S.A. (2018). Use of remote sensing data in investigations of ecological state of water bodies in urban area of Kyiv city. Proc. of International Symposium The Environment and the Industry. Bucharest, 312–318.