Specificities of the study of physical and chemical treatment of wastewater with a significant content of synthetic phosphate-based detergents

Keywords: water treatment, sewage treatment, phosphates, barrier discharge, ozonation, cavitation

Abstract

The relevance of research. Despite the decrease in the total volume of sewage over the first decades of the 21st century in the territory of Ukraine, the nature of the contaminants that make up their composition has changed significantly. In particular, the content of phosphate compounds and ammonium nitrogen increased. The increase in the phosphate component of wastewater is caused by the widespread of synthetic phosphate-based detergents. Existing treatment facilities are not designed to remove significant volumes of phosphate compounds. That provokes the process of reservoirs eutrophication, their secondary contamination due to biological processes (catastrophic reproduction of cyanobacteria and rapid development of higher aquatic vegetation). Possible ways to solve this issue include: prohibition of the use of synthetic phosphate-based detergents; reconstruction of sewage treatment plants, which will enable effective retention of phosphate compounds; reconstruction of water treatment plants, which will enable to purify poor quality water from water sources and the combination of all these three ways, but not with the global prohibition of the use of synthetic phosphate-based detergents, but by increasing the extra charges for them to the level of phosphate-free detergents and subsidizing them for that.

Research results. A number of physical and chemical methods based on the oxidation reactions of a model solution of synthetic detergent were investigated. In particular, such a promising area of new water purification technologies as the use of so-called advanced oxidation technologies (AOTs), in which strong oxidants are generated by electric discharges in the water-air environment or on the surface of a thin film of water. Ozonation was performed using an apparatus that combined cavitation treatment and ozonation. The results of organic component oxidation experimental studies of the model solution with the use of «Fenton» reagent, physical methods of purification (ozonation with cavitation, plasma treatment) and treatment with hydrogen peroxide are presented.

Conclusions. The best oxidation effect of the organic component of the model solution was achieved with the use of «Fenton» reagent – 89.5 %. All physical methods (cavitation with ozonation and plasma treatment) achieved about 50 % reduction in COD content: ozonation - 58.3 %; plasma treatment - 51.3 %. The worst results were obtained when treating with hydrogen peroxide - 1.78 %. The experiments in this area need to be continued because all the methods that have been tested require further water purification. In our view, it may be advantageous to combine physical treatment methods with «Fenton» reagent or with additional adsorption of organic compounds residues or with additional biological treatment.

Author Biographies

D. V. Charnyi, Institute of Water Problems and Land Reclamation NAAS, Kyiv

Doctor in technical sciences, chief Researcher

E. M. Matseliuk, Institute of Water Problems and Land Reclamation NAAS, Kyiv

Ph. D in technical sciences, head of the laboratory

Y. A. Onanko, Institute of Water Problems and Land Reclamation NAAS, Kyiv

Postgraduate

References

1. Nakaz № 78 Minpryrody Ukrayiny «Pro zatverdzhennya Poryadku vedennya derzhavnoho obliku vodokorystuvannya» [On approval of the Procedure for keeping the state account of water use]: pryiniatyi 16 ber. 2015 roku № 78. (2015, April 30). Ofitsiynyy visnyk Ukrayiny, 32, 201 [in Ukrainian].
2. Savluchynska, M. O., Horbatiuk, L. O. (2014). Fosfor u vodnykh ekosystemakh [Phosphorus in aquatic ecosystems]. Naukovi zapysky Ternopilʹsʹkoho natsionalʹnoho pedahohichnoho universytetu imeni Volodymyra Hnatyuka. Seriya : Biolohiya – Scientific notes of the Ternopil Volodymyr Hnatyuk National Pedagogical University. Series: Biology, 4, 153–162. Ternopil [in Ukrainian].
3. Korzhov, Ye. I., Leontieva, T. O. (2018). Zovnishniy vodoobmin yak odyn z faktoriv formuvannya kilʹkisnykh pokaznykiv fitoplanktonu zaplavnykh vodoym ponyzzya Dnipra [External water exchange as one of the factors of formation of quantitative indicators of phytoplankton of floodplain reservoirs of the lower Dnieper]. Modern hydroecology: a place of scientific research in solving urgent problems: a collection of materials of the 5th scientific-practical conference for young scientists, Kyiv: IoHNASU, 23–25 [in Ukrainian].
4. Danylova, I. V. (2015). Zalezhnistʹ vmistu khloroformu u pytniy vodi vid rozvytku synʹo-zelennykh vodorostey [The dependence of chloroform content in drinking water on the development of blue-green algae]. Zbalansovane pryrodokorystuvannya – Balanced nature management, 4, 77–79. Kyiv [in Ukrainian].
5. Kohanovskyi, A. M. (1978). Fiziko-khimicheskiye osnovy izvlecheniya poverkhnostno-aktivnykh veshchestv iz vodnykh rastvorov i stochnykh vod [Physico-chemical basis for the extraction of surfactants from aqueous solutions and wastewater]. Kyiv: Nauk. Dumka [in Russian].
6. Kozhanov, V. A., Klymenko N. A. (1984). Metody opredeleniya tekhnologicheskikh parametrov protsessa pennoy separatsii PAV [Methods for determining the technological parameters of the surfactant foam separation process]. Khimiya i tekhnologiya vody – Chemistry and water technology, 6(2), 177–182. Kyiv [in Russian].
7. Ibadulaiev, F. Yu. (2004). Pennaya separatsiya PAV iz stochnykh vod [Foam separation of surfactants from wastewater]. Khimiya i tekhnologiya vody – Chemistry and water technology, 26(1), 50–59. Kyiv [in Russian].
8. Aboulhassan, M.A. (2006). Removal of surfactant from industrial wastewaters by coagulation flocculation process. International Journal of Environmental Science & Technology. 3, P. 327–332. https://doi.org/10.1007/BF03325941
9. Mahri, A. N. (2004). Removal of Anionic Surfactants in Detergent Wastewater by Chemical Coagulation. Pakistan Journal of Biological Sciences. 7, P. 2222–2226. http://dx.doi.org/10.3923/pjbs.2004.2222.2226
10. Terekhova, E. L. (2004 ). Intensifikatsiya ochistki stochnykh vod ot poverkhnostno-aktivnykh veshchestv [Intensification of wastewater treatment from surfactants]. PhD thesis. Irkutsk: Dal'nevostochnyy gosudarstvennyy universitet putey soobshcheniya [in Russian].
11. Smolin, S. K. (2003). Osobennosti udaleniya ekologicheski opasnykh poverkhnostno-aktivnykh veshchestv iz vodnykh sistem [Features of the removal of environmentally hazardous surfactants from water systems]. PhD thesis. Kyiv: Institut kolloidnoy khimii i khimii vody im. A.V. Dumanskogo NANU [in Russian].
12. Voda. Vyznachennya khimichnoho pohlynannya kysnyu [Water. Determination of chemical oxygen uptake]. (2018). DSTU 31859:2018. Natsionalnyi standart Ukrainy. Kyiv: DP «Ukrayinsʹkyy naukovo-doslidnyy i navchalʹnyy tsentr problem standartyzatsiyi, sertyfikatsiyi ta yakosti». [in Ukrainian].
13. Jiang, B. (2014). Review on electrical discharge plasma technology for wastewater. Chemical Engineering Journal, 236, 348–363. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cej.2013.09.090
14. Sugai, T. (2014). Investigation for optimization of an inductive energy storage circuit for electrical discharge water treatment. IEEE Transactions on Plasma Science. 42(10), P. 3101–3108. https://doi.org/10.1109/TPS.2014.2304543
15. Kostich, M. M. (2011). Decolorization of reactive textile dyes using water falling film dielectric barrier discharge. Journal of Hazardous Materials. 192, P. 763–771. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jhazmat.2011.05.086
16. Grinevich, V. I. (2011). Application of dielectric barrier discharge for waste water purification. Plasma Chem Plasma Process. 31, P. 573–583. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11090-010-9256-1
17. Bozhko, I. V., Kobylchak, V. V. (2015). Obrobka impulʹsnym barʺyernym rozryadom vody v krapelʹnomu stani [Impulse barrier water treatment in a drip condition]. Tekhnichna elektrodynamika – Technical electrodynamics, 3, 60–66. Kyiv [in Ukrainian].
Published
2020-06-25
How to Cite
Charnyi, D., Matseliuk, E., & Onanko, Y. (2020). Specificities of the study of physical and chemical treatment of wastewater with a significant content of synthetic phosphate-based detergents. Land Reclamation and Water Management, (1), 49 - 55. https://doi.org/10.31073/mivg202001-217