Improving the technology of deferrization and ground water supply in the automated agricultural water supply systems
Relevance of research Ukraine has an urgent problem of supplying adequate quality drinking water, especially in rural areas. Only 30% Ukrainian rural areas are equipped with water supplying systems. The main sources of water supply in local agricultural water pipelines are groundwater. However, groundwater in Ukraine is often characterized with a rather high iron content, which is sometimes ten times higher than the current regulatory requirements Cn = 0.2 mg / dm3.
The purpose and objectives of the study For groundwater treatment we propose to use biological methods with the placement of treatment facilities in the body of the water tower (WT), which can significantly reduce capital and operating costs. When the downward movement of aerated source groundwater through the bioreactor (BR) a transition of divalent iron into a ferric iron form occurs with the help of iron bacteria, immobilized on fibrous media, and when the ascending movement of water through floating polystyrene foam media of the contact clarification filter (CCF), it is clarified from colloidal particles of iron hydroxide due to their compressed sedimentation in the subfilter space of the CCF.
Research methods. The results of laboratory research on iron reduction when water deferrization for a certain period of time are given, the technological solution for the optimization of constructive and technological parameters of WT and CCF in the absence of repeated "charging" of the filter is offered. When a contact-clarifying filter is flushed it is recommended to leave a part of the Gmin residue, which will serve as a catalyst during the next water deferrization cycle.
Prospects for research, directions for further work. We proposed a new automated water deferrization plant equipped with an elevated water tank. The advantage of it is to provide a high efficiency of biological water-based iron removal with complete automation of water filtration and filter flushing, while reducing the cost of its construction and operation.
2. Vodnyy kodex Ukrayiny (zi zminamy) [Water Code of Ukraine. (with changes)] .(n.d.). Retrieved from: https://zakon.rada.gov.ua/laws/show/213/95-%D0%B2%D1%80 [In Ukrainian].
3. Zakon Ukrayiny «Pro Zahalnoderzhavnu tsilovu programmu Pytna voda Ukrayiny na 2011-2020 roky» [Law of Ukraine. National Target Program: Drinking Water of Ukraine for 2011-2020.]: pryiniatyi 20 oct. 2011 roku №3933-VІ. (2011, October 20). Vidomosti Verkhovnoi Rady Ukrainy. Kyiv: Parlam. vyd-vo. Retrieved from: https://zakon.rada.gov.ua/laws/show/2455-15 [In Ukrainian].
4. Vodopostachannya. Zovnishni merezhi ta sporudy. Osnovni polozhennya proektuvannya [Text engl]. (2013). DBN V.2.5-74:2013. State building codes. Kyiv: Minrehion. Retrieved from: http://www.minregion.gov.ua/wp-content/uploads/2017/12/101.1.-DBN-V.2.5-742013.-Vodopostachannya.-Zovnishni-merezhi.pdf. [In Ukrainian].
5. Natsionalna dopovid pro yakist pytnoyi vody ta stan pytnoho vodopostachannya v Ukrayini u 2017r. [National report on drinking water quality and drinking water supply in Ukraine in 2017]. (2017). Kyiv: Ministry of Regional Development, Construction and Housing and Communal Services of Ukraine. Retrieved from: http://www.minregion.gov.ua/wp-content/uploads/2019/11/Proekt-Nats.-dop.-za-2018.pdf. [In Ukrainian].
6. Stan pidzemnykh vod Ukrayiny. Shchorichnyk [Groundwater status of Ukraine. Yearbook.]. (2018). Kyiv: State Service of Geology and Subsoil of Ukraine, State Scientific and Production Enterprise "State Information Geological Fund of Ukraine. Retrieved from: http://geoinf.kiev.ua/wp/wp-content/uploads/2019/07/schorichnyk_stan_pv_2018_1.pdf.[In Ukrainian].
7. Voda pytna. Vymohy ta metody kontrolyu yakosti [Drinking water. Quality control requirements and methods]. (2014). DSTU 7525:2014. Natsionalnyi standart Ukrainy. Kyiv: Minekonomrozvytku Ukrayiny. [In Ukrainian].
8. Hihiyenichni vymohy do vody pytnoyi, pryznachenoyi dlya spozhyvannya lyudynoyu [Hygienic requirements for drinking water intended for human consumption]. (2010). DSanPiN 2.2.4-171-10. Derzhavni sanitarni normy ta pravyla. Kyiv: Ministry of Health of Ukraine. Retrieved from: https://zakon.rada.gov.ua/laws/show/z0452-10. [In Ukrainian].
9. Ankrah, D. A,. & Sogaard, E. G. (2009). A review of biological iron removal. Thirteenth International Water Technology Conference, Elurghada, Egyp, 999-1005.
10. Badjo, I., & Moucher, P. L’exemple d’une grande installation de deferrasation biologique au togo. Technologies appropriees, 38, 3, 197-206.
11. Benz, M., Brune, A, & Schink, B. (1998). Anaerobic and aerobic oxidation of ferrous iron at neutral pH bychemoheterotrophic nitratereducing bacteria. Arch. Microbiol., V. 169 (2), 159-165.
12. Dzombak, D. A. (1990). Surface complexation modeling Hydrous ferric oxide. New York: John Wiley.
13. Grochmann, A., Gollasch, R., & Chumacher, G. (1989). Biologische enteisenung und entmanganung eines methanhaltigen grundwasser in Speyir. GWF, Wasser, Abwasser., 9, 441-447.
14. Hofmann, Dr J., & Hantzschel, Dr. L. (2002). Abbau von organischen schadstoffen in grundwassern durch katalytische oxidation. Chem.-Ing.-Techn, 2, 3-5.
15. Kappler, A., & Straub, K. L. (2005). Geomicrobiological cycling of iron. Rev. Mineral. Geochem, V. 59, 85-108.
16. Lavanya, R. S., Ulavi, S., & Lokesh, K. S. (2014). Water softening and de-ironing of ground water using sulfonated polystyrene beads. International journal of engineering research & technology, V 3, 2124–2127.
17. Martin, S.T. (2003). Precipitation and Dissolution of Iron and Manganese Oxides. Environmental Catalysis, Chapter 4. (Ed.). Vicki H. Grassian.
18. Mikhnevich, E. I., & Propolsky, D. E. (2017). Methods of deironing of water, analysis and condition of their use. Melioration, 2(80), 59–65.
19. Ocinski, D., Jacukowicz-Sobala, I., Mazur, P., Raczyk, J., & Kociolek-Balawejder, E. (2016). Water treatment residuals containing iron and manganese oxides for arsenic removal from water. Characterization of physicochemical properties and adsorption studies. Chemical Engineering Journal 294, 210–221.
20. Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and Wastewater (1995). 19th edition, American Public Health Association. American Water Works Association. Water Environment Federation, Washington DC.
21. Gvozdyak, P.I. (1989). Mikrobiologiya I biotekhnologiya ochistki vody: Quo vadih? [Microbiology and biotechnology of water purification: Quo vadih? ]. Khimiya I tekhnologiya vody, 9, 854-858. [In Russian].
22. Khoruzhyy, P.D., Khomutetska, T.P., & Khoruzhyy V.P. (2008). Resursozberihayuchi tekhnolohiyi vodopostachannya [Resource-saving technologies of water supply]. Kyiv: Agrarian Science. [In Ukrainian].
23. Hvozdyak, P.I. (2019). Biokhimiya vody. Biotekhnolohiya vody. [Water biochemistry. Water biotechnology.]. Kyiv: Vydavnychyy dim Kyyevo-Mohylyanska akademiya. [In Ukrainian].
24. Orlov, V.O., & Martynov, S.Yu. (2011). Aeratsiyni metody znezaliznennya vody. [Aeration Methods for Water De-Ironing]. Voda I vodoochysni tekhnolohiyi, 2, 42-52. [In Ukrainian].
25. Nor,V.V.,& Khomutetska, T.P. (2019). Zabezpechennya ekonomichnoyi ta nadiynoyi roboty system silskohospodarskoho vodopostachannya (na prykladi systemy vodopostachannya sela Tarasivka Kyyivskoyi oblasti). [Provision of economical and reliable operation of agricultural water supply systems (for example, the water supply system of Tarasivka village, Kyiv region)]. Melioratsiya i vodne hospodarstvo, 2, 175-185. [In Ukrainian].
26. Stasyuk, S.R. (2017). Laboratorni doslidzhennya protsesiv znezaliznennya pidzemnykh vod biolohichnym metodom [Laboratory studies of the processes of groundwater ironation by biological method]. Visnyk NUVHP Tekhnichni nauky, 4(80), 42-51. [In Ukrainian].