Problems and main areas of irrigation and drainage development in Ukraine in a changing climate
Climate change has caused rapid soil dehydration in Ukraine; therefore sustainable agriculture will only be possible applying throughout irrigation or water regulation. Meanwhile, the use of the irrigation and drainage systems potential remains extremely unsatisfactory. In 2019, 532,000 ha were actually irrigated, and water regulation was performed on less than 300,000 ha. The purpose of the research. To analyze the existing state and substantiate the areas of the irrigation and drainage sector development to ensure the sustainable agriculture in the face of a changing climate. Materials and methods of the research. In the work, a set of methods was used: analytical, expert evaluations, surveys, comparisons and analogues, experimental. Observation data from the state meteorological stations network were used to evaluate hydrothermal conditions and the data from the network of hydrological posts of Ukrhydrometcentre were used to evaluate the river condition. To assess the technical condition of the engineering infrastructure, methodological approaches were used in accordance with the requirements of the international and European standards and the normative documents currently in force in Ukraine. To identify the possible ways and mechanisms to restore the irrigation and drainage systems potential, the reasons of the existing state were analyzed and it was determined that the uncompleted land and economic reforms, imperfections in the existing legislation and state support mechanisms, especially in the sector management, caused the long-year underfunding of irrigation and drainage facilities operation and restoration and resulted in the crisis situation in the sector. Conclusions. Based on the study of the world experience and the carried out research, it was established that the restoration and development of irrigation and drainage in Ukraine are possible only along with the implementation of a legal and institutional reform to introduce decentralization, improvement of the existing legislation, modernization of irrigation and drainage systems through the development and implementation of investment projects for restoration and development of irrigation and drainage systems, creation of attractive investment environments, development and introduction of a financing mechanism to cover management, operation and maintenance costs based on a new tariff formation system, introduction of the scientific support and staffing system for the land reclamation sector. The basis for the deployment of irrigation and drainage restoration should be the "Irrigation and Drainage Strategy in Ukraine until 2030", and the appropriate plan of measures, formed on the basis of fundamentally new institutional, scientific, technical and technological, economic, organizational, social and environmental approaches, should become a tool for achieving the goals of the "Strategy ...". Successful implementation of the goals of irrigation and drainage restoration in Ukraine will create the conditions to sustainable and profitable agricultural production in the face of climate change, to restore irrigation on the area of about 1,0 to 1,2 mln. ha and drainage on the area of 1,0 mln. ha and to additionally get up to 10 mln. tons of grain, 8-10 mln. tons of fruit, berries and vegetables annually.
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