Aspects of formation of soil water regime and water consumption of corn under subsurface drip irrigation

Keywords: subsurface drip irrigation, corn, soil water regime, wetting zone, irrigation pipeline

Abstract

The results of experimental researches on studying of features of formation of a water mode of soils, water consumption processes, and corn yield under different schemes of irrigation pipelines (IP) under subsurface drip irrigation (SDI) in the Steppe of Ukraine. The wetting zone of dark-chestnut residual-saline sandy soil (SI "SF "Brylivske") changed. There is a shift of the center relative to the drip water outlet into deeper horizons of the soil profile (up to 52 cm) with the increasing norm; soil layer 0-15 cm is almost not moistened, regardless of watering rate. At a distance of IP 1,0 m closing of wetting zones, occur at irrigation rates of 2,7 m3/100 running meter (r. m), and at a distance of IP 1,4 m does not occur even at irrigation rates of 3,7 m3/100 r. m, while the depth of wetting reaches 90 cm. The wetting zone of chernozem sandy loam on the loess species (SI "SF "Velyki Klyny") with irrigation rates of 2,7 m3/100 r. m was observed on the soil surface. The maximum depth of wetting, with irrigation norms of 3,7 m3/100 r. m, reached 70 cm with a maximum diameter of 79 cm at a depth of 25 cm. Closing of wetting zones was not observed.

Studies at SI "SF "Brylivske" have confirmed that the depth of IP placement (on the soil surface or at a depth of 30 cm) influenced the formation of the soil water regime and the corn yield. The minimum total water consumption was 6271 m3/ha under drip irrigation (DI) (IP 1,4 m), 17 % more than SDI (IP 1,4 m), and 29% more than SDI (IP 1,0 m). The highest yield was obtained in the case of DI (IP 1,4 m) of 15,72 t/ha. SDI (IP 1,0 m) received 13,93 t/ha, and SDI (IP 1,4 m) received 13,50 t/ha.

The distance between the IP in 1,0 m and 1.4 m of the SDI system did not significantly affect corn yield (13.93 and 13.50 t/ha, respectively), but at a distance of IP 1.4 m, the water consumption ratio was 6.8% less compared to IP 1,0 m. The value of the irrigation rate in the variants SDI (IP 1.0 m) was higher than SDI (IP 1,4 m) by 13,6 %. Therefore, in terms of irrigation water consumption and capital expenditures, the SDI (IP 1,4 m) is more economical.

Experimental studies conducted in the SI "SF "Velyki Klyny" show that the depth of placement of IP (on the soil surface or at a depth of 20 cm) did not affect the corn yield. For DI (IP 1,0 m) the yield was 12,00 t/ha and for SDI (IP 1.0 m) was 12,10 t/ha, with a water consumption ratio of 533,8 m3/t, and for DI (IP 1,0 m) by 3,6 % more.

The research results confirm the importance of the parameters of SDI system for the formation of soil water regime and, accordingly, the realization of the potential of varieties and hybrids of crops for their cultivation by SDI.

Author Biographies

M. I. Romashchenko, Institute of Water Problems and Land Reclamation of NAAS, Kyiv

Doctor in technical sciences

A. P. Shatkovskyi, Institute of Water Problems and Land Reclamation of NAAS, Kyiv

Doctor in technical sciences

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Published
2021-12-23
How to Cite
Romashchenko, M., Shatkovskyi, A., Sardak, A., Cherevichny, Y., Didenko, N., & Marinkov, O. (2021). Aspects of formation of soil water regime and water consumption of corn under subsurface drip irrigation. Land Reclamation and Water Management, (2), 190 - 200. https://doi.org/10.31073/mivg202102-298