Peculiarities of formation of water quality of surface sources of water supply as a factor of a choice of a method of water treatment

Keywords: climatic and anthropogenic changes, surface waters, phytoplankton, cyanobacteria, biogenic substances, microcystin

Abstract

The current state and formation of water quality in reservoirs that serve as sources of drinking water supply were considered. It was revealed that phytoplankton becomes one of the main factors influencing the formation of water quality in reservoirs in the warm period from June to November, especially during the period of reservoirs “blooming”. Mostly these processes are triggered by the explosive development of blue-green algae (cyanobacteria). The factors accompanying this phenomenon are shown. The characteristic of the influence of global climate change and new composition of wastewater on water quality in surface water supply sources is given. If earlier the sewage contained significant volumes of heavy metals, oil products, phenols, etc., now they are observed to decrease at several times and vice versa - an increase in the volume of biogenic compounds, especially phosphates is observed. The emergence of phosphates is caused both by the ingress of phosphate fertilizers into water bodies, and by household reasons - the massive distribution of phosphate-based detergents and the inability of existing sewage treatment plants to efficiently process them. Screening monitoring of the Dnieper river basin showed extremely high levels of the predicted safe concentration of herbicides, insecticides, fungicides, as well as pharmaceutical substances such as carbomazepine, lopinavir, diclofenac, efavirenz, etc. in water.

That is, among organic pollutants, the focus changes from classic petrochemical products to the products related to agricultural and pharmaceutical production, which, in certain concentrations, can stimulate the development of phytoplankton.

The effective methods for treating surface water in modern conditions are as follows:

- physical retention of coarse fractions of phytoplankton using new designs of water intake structures;

- the use of new filter materials that effectively trap finely dispersed phytoplankton fractions at the main treatment facilities and are capable of regenerating the filter media;

- the use of new oxidizing agents-disinfectants that do not form toxic organochlorine compounds, with preliminary extraction of phytoplankton masses;

Author Biographies

D. V. Charnyy, Institute of Water Problems and Land Reclamation of NAAS, Kyiv

Doctor of technical sciences

Ye. M. Matseluk, Institute of Water Problems and Land Reclamation of NAAS, Kyiv

Ph. D.

N. M. Chernova, National University of Food Technologies, Kyiv, Ukraine

Ph. D

References

1. Slobodnyk, Ya., Aligizakis, N., & Osvald, P. (2021). Skryninhovyy monitoring richkovogo baseyny Dnipra [Screening monitoring of the Dnieper river basin] Kyiv: Ministerstvo zakhystu dovkillya ta pryrodnykh resursiv Ukrayiny; Derzhavne ahentstvo vodnykh resursiv Ukrayiny; Vodna Initsiatyva Plyus Yevropeyskoho Soyuzu dlya krayin Skhidnoho partnerstva (EUWI+) Viden: Umweltbundesamt GmbH; Paryzh: Office International de l’Eau (IOW) [in Ukrainian].
2. Greven, A.C. (2016). Polycarbonate and polystyrene nanoparticles act as stressors to the innate immune system of fathead minnows (pimephales promelas, rafinesque 1820) Dissertation, LMU München: Faculty of Veterinary Medicine. [in English].
3. Vyshnevskyy, V.I., & Lopata, L.M. (2016). “Tsvitinnya” vody na vodozabori dniprovskoyi vodoprovidnoyi stantsiyi. [Flowering" of water at the water intake of the Dnieper water supply station]. Melioratsiya i vodne hospodarstvo, 104, 31–35. [in Ukrainian].
4. Vyshnevskyy, V.I., & Shevchu, S.A. (2018). Vykorystannya danykh dystantsiynoho zonduvannya zemli u doslidzhennyakh vodnykh obyektiv Ukrayiny. [Use of remote sensing data in research of water bodies of Ukraine.] Kyyiv, «Interpres LTD». [in Ukrainian].
5. Tolstokhatko, V.A. (2010). Monitoring dneprovskikh vodokhranilishch po dannym distantsionnogo zondirovaniya zemli so sputnika Landsat. [Monitoring of the Dnieper reservoirs according to the data of remote sensing of the earth from the Landsat satellite] Vostochno-Yevropeyskiy zhurnal peredovykh tekhnologiy, № 3/11(45), 49-53. [in Russian].
6. Vyshnevskyy, V.I. (2011). Rika Dnipro [River Dnipro]. Kyiv, «Interpres LTD». [in Ukrainian].
7. Kamenir, Yu., Mikhaylyuk, T. I., & Popova, A. F. atal. (2008). Vliyaniye antropogennogo zagryazneniya na fitoplankton Kanevskogo vodokhranilishcha (Ukraina). sravneniye razmernykh spektrov. [The effect of anthropogenic pollution on phytoplankton of the Kanev reservoir (Ukraine). comparison of dimensional spectra] Algologiya. Vol. 18, № 2, 149 - 159. [in Russian].
8. Arystarkhova, E.O. Yelnikova, T. O., Kupriyets, O. L., & Truskavetska, L. M. (2006). Doslidzhennya vplyvu bioheniv na osoblyvosti rozvytku evtrofnykh protsesiv u vodoskhovyshchi Denyshi. [Research of influence of nutrients on features of development of eutrophic processes in Denishi reservoir] Visnyk ZHDTU, № 3 (38), 130 - 133. [in Ukrainian].
9. Batayeva, Yu. V. (2005). Vliyaniye ekstremalnykh gidrokhimicheskikh usloviy na vidovoy sostav tsianobakteriy v vodoyemakh nizhney Volgi.[Influence of extreme hydrochemical conditions on the species composition of cyanobacteria in water bodies of the lower Volga] Avtoref. dis. kand. biol. nauk. Moskva. [in Russian].
10. Yelnikova, T. O., & Podchashynskyy, Yu.O. (2015). Modelyuvannya evtrofnykh protsesiv u vodoskhovyshchakh richky Teteriv Zhytomyrskoyi oblasti na osnovi videozobrazhen prob vody. [Modeling of eutrophic processes in the reservoirs of the river Teteriv, Zhytomyr region on the basis of video images of water samples.] Visnyk ZHDTU. 2015. № 3(74), 54- 59. [in Ukrainian].
11. Uberman, V., & Vaskovets, L. (2014). Normirovaniye sbrosov fosfatov na osnove ekologicheskikh PDK [Rationing of Phosphate Discharges Based on Environmental MPC]. [in Russian].
12. Khaliullina, L. Yu., & Yakovlev, V.A. (2015). Fitoplankton melkovodiy v verkhov'yakh Kuybyshevskogo vodokhranilishcha. [Phytoplankton of shallow waters in the upper reaches of the Kuibyshev reservoir]. Kazan: Izd-vo Akademii nauk RF. [in Russian].
13. Lehane, L. (2000). The national office of animal and plant health, agriculture, fisheries, and forestry. Australia: Canberra [in English].
14. Rick Jervis. (2014). Toxins contaminate drinking water in northwest Ohio. USA Today. [in English].
Published
2021-12-23
How to Cite
Charnyy, D., Matseluk, Y., Levytska, V., Marysyk, S., & Chernova, N. (2021). Peculiarities of formation of water quality of surface sources of water supply as a factor of a choice of a method of water treatment. Land Reclamation and Water Management, (2), 45 - 54. https://doi.org/10.31073/mivg202102-307