FEATURES OF MAIZE GROWING FOR GRAIN IN THE WESTERN FOREST ZONE OF UKRAINE IN THE CONDITIONS OF CURRENT CLIMATE CHANGES

Keywords: drained lands, corn, varieties and hybrids, zone of Western Polissia, climate changes, fertilization system

Abstract

Modern climatic changes, namely significant warming in the northern Forest-Steppe and Polissia zones of Ukraine, provide opportunities for the cultivation of a number of grain and leguminous crops (maize for grain, soybeans, sunflower, and others), previously uncharacteristic of this region. Among the above-mentioned crops, corn has the greatest grain yield potential, therefore it is one of the most common crops in world agriculture. If 10-15 years ago corn was not grown for grain in the Polissia zone, then in recent years its sown areas have grown significantly, and the yield in some years is not inferior to the regions of the Forest Steppe and Steppe, which are traditional for this crop. The results of experimental studies of the station showed that under favorable conditions on the most fertile slopes of the drained sod-podzolic soils of the Western Polissia zone, with intensive technologies, it is possible to obtain more than 10-12 t/ha of corn grain.

The analysis of hydrothermal indicators shows that with the current indicators of heat supply of the growing season in the zone of Western Polissia on mineral soils, it is possible to achieve not only early-ripening, but even medium-early hybrids of corn with FAO up to 280-300. Drained peat soils, due to their high nitrogen content and sufficient amount of moisture, have sufficient potential for obtaining a high yield of corn grain. However, its indicators over the years of research vary greatly and depend to a large extent on the agro-meteorological conditions of the growing season. It has been established that the main limiting factors for achieving a high yield of corn grain on peat soils are less favorable microclimatic features (less amount of active heat, shorter growing season and frost-free period, etc.) compared to adjacent sod-podzolic soils located nearby on dry land. It has been experimentally established that under conditions of minimum duration without a frost period, only the most early-ripening hybrids of corn with FAO up to 220-240 will have time to form a full-fledged crop of grain on drained peat soils in the Western Polissia zone. By choosing late-ripening hybrids, there is a risk of a significant shortfall in the harvest due to the premature termination of vegetation caused by early autumn frosts. It was established that the highest yield of corn per grain, both on sod-podzolic and peat soils, was provided by the organo-mineral fertilization system, which was based on the application of complete mineral fertilizer at the rate of N90Р90К90 on turf-podzolic soils and N35Р60K120 on peat soils in combination with phosphorus mobilizing drug Rice Pi. The use of the organo-mineral fertilization system (N90Р90К90 + phosphorus mobilizing drug Rice Pi) ensured an increase in the yield of corn on sod-podzolic soils by 30,2 ct/ha compared to the basic fertilization system (N30Р30К30). The use of the organo-mineral fertilization system (N35Р60K120 + phosphorus mobilizing drug Rice Pi) ensured an increase in the yield of corn on peatlands by 56.8 ct/ha compared to the natural background of fertility.

Author Biographies

Yu. O. Tarariko, Institute of Water Problems and Land Reclamation of NAAS, Kyiv, 03022, Ukraine

Doctor of Agricultural Sciences

M. D. Zosymchuk, Sarny Research Station of the IWPaLR of NAAS Sarny, Ukraine

Ph.D. in Agricultural Sciences

Yu. V. Soroka, Institute of Water Problems and Land Reclamation of NAAS, Kyiv, 03022, Ukraine

Ph.D. in Agricultural Sciences

O. I. Hulenko, Dnipro State Agrarian and Economic University, Dnipro, Ukraine

Ph.D.

References

1. Polianchykov, S.M, Lohinova, I.V., & Kapitanska, O.S. (2019). Kukurudza: sekrety amerykanskoho uspikhu [Corn: the secrets of American success]. Propozytsiia, 7, 76-77. [in Ukrainian].
2. Zosymchuk, M.D. (2022). Kukurudziani laifkhaky [Corn life hack]. The Ukrainian Farmer, 1 (145), 62-64. [in Ukrainian].
3. Petrychenko, V.F., & Lykhochvor, V.V. (2020). Roslynytstvo. Novi tekhnolohii vyroshchuvannia polovykh kultur [Plant growing. New technologies for growing field crops]. Lviv. Ukrainski tekhnolohii. [in Ukrainian].
4. Tekhnolohiia vyroshchuvannia kukurudzy. Rekomendatsii KWS [Corn growing technologies. KWS recommendations]. [in Ukrainian].
5. Ahrobiznes u 2019-2021 rr. Statystychnyi zbirnyk [Agribusiness in 2019-2020. Statistical collection]. [in Ukrainian]
6. Rezultaty doslidzhennia 105 hibrydiv kukurudzy, system zakhystu ta zhyvlennia u 2020 rotsi [Research results of 105 corn hybrids, protection and nutrition systems in 2020]. https://superagronom.com/articles/458-rezultati-doslidjennya-105-gibridiv-kukurudzi-sistem-zahistu-ta-jivlennya-u-2020-rotsi [in Ukrainian]
7. Zosymchuk, M.D. (2020). Postiina propyska [Permanent registration]. The Ukrainian Farmer, 11 (131), 26-27. [in Ukrainian].
8. Tarariko, Yu. O., Saidak, R.V., & Soroka, Yu.V. (2016). Perspektyvy vykorystannia meliorovanykh zemel humidnoi zony Ukrainy v umovakh zmin klimatu [Prospects for the use of reclaimed lands in the humid zone of Ukraine in the context of climate change]. Visnyk ahrarnoi nauky, 7, 55-59. [in Ukrainian]
9. Naukovi osnovy ahropromyslovoho vyrobnytstva v zoni Polissia ta zakhidnomu rehioni Ukrainy [Scientific foundations of agro-industrial production in the Polissia zone and the western region of Ukraine]. M.V. Zubets and others (Eds.). (2010). 944. [in Ukrainian]
10. Naukovo obhruntovana systema vedennia ahropromyslovoho vyrobnytstva u Volynskii obl. [The system of conducting industrial protection production in the Volyn region has been scientifically substantiated.]. (2008). Lutsk:V.H. Ivanyuk. [in Ukrainian]
11. Ryzhuk, S.M., Savchuk, O.I., Melnychuk, A.O., & Pryimachuk, T.Iu. (2022). Efektyvnist korotkorotatsiinykh sivozmin z ekonomichno-pryvablyvymy kulturamy na osushuvanykh dernovo-pidzolystykh gruntakh [Efficiency of short-rotation crop rotations with economically attractive crops on drained soddy-podzolic soils]. Visnyk ahrarnoi nauky, 2 (827), 11-18. [in Ukrainian].
12. Lykhochvor, V.V. (2001). Praktychni porady z vyroshchuvannia zernovykh ta zernobobovykh kultur v umovakh Zakhidnoi Ukrainy [Practical advice on growing grains and leguminous crops in Western Ukraine]. Lviv: NVF "Ukrainski tekhnolohii". [in Ukrainian]
13. Truskavetskyi, R.S. (2010). Torfovi grunty i torfovyshcha Ukrainy [Peat soils and peatlands of Ukraine]. Kharkiv [in Ukrainian]
14. Voropai, H.V. (2020). Silskohospodarske vykorystannia osushuvanykh zemel humidnoi zony Ukrainy v umovakh reformuvannia ahrarnoho sektoru ta zmin klimatu [Agricultural use of drained lands in the humid zone of Ukraine in the context of reforming the agricultural sector and climate change]. Visnyk ahrarnoi nauky, 11, 62-73. [in Ukrainian]
15. Prymak, I.D. (2016). Ahrometeorolohiia [Agrometeorology]. Kyiv. [in Ukrainian]
16. Avramenko, N.M. (2016). Klymatycheskye yzmenenyia na Polesskoi opytnoi stantsyy melyoratyvnoho zemledelyia y luhovodstva za peryod ynstrumentalnykh nabliudenyi. Materyaly mezhdunarodnoi nauchnoi konferentsyy Problemy ratsyonalnoho yspolzovanyia pryrodnykh resursov y ustoichyvoe razvytye Polesia [Climatic changes at the Polesie experimental station of reclamation agriculture and grassland farming during the period of instrumental observations. Proceedings of the international scientific conference Problems of rational use of natural resources and sustainable development of Polesie]. Minsk, 318-323. [in Russian].
17. Moroz, H.M. (2016). Dynamyka pokazatelei ahroklymatycheskykh uslovyi Belorusskoho Polesia. Materyaly mezhdunarodnoi nauchnoi konferentsyy Problemy ratsyonalnoho yspolzovanyia pryrodnykh resursov y ustoichyvoe razvytye Polesia [Dynamics of indicators of agroclimatic conditions in Belarusian Polesie. Proceedings of the international scientific conference Problems of rational use of natural resources and sustainable development of Polesie]. Minsk, 404-408. [in Russian].
18. Yak obraty hibryd kukurudzy? [How to choose a corn hybrid] https://kurkul.com/spetsproekty/702-yak-obrati-gibrid-kukurudzi [in Ukrainian]
19. Lapa, Y.Z. (1965). Ahroklymatychekye kharakterystyka y mykroklymatycheskye osobennosty osushennoho bolota «Chemernoe». Sbornyk Osushenye y osvoenye nyzynnykh bolot Polesskoi zony USSR [Agroclimatic characteristics and microclimatic features of the drained Chemernoye swamp. Collection: Drainage and development of lowland swamps in the Polesie zone of the Ukrainian SSR]. Kyiv, 11-30. [in Russian].
20. Voropai, H.V., Yatsyk, M.V., Mozol, N.V., Stetsiuk, M.H., & Zosymchuk, M.D. (2020). Osoblyvosti formuvannia vodno-teplovoho rezhymu osushuvanykh hruntiv v umovakh zmin klimatu (na prykladi Sarnenskoi doslidnoi stantsii IWPiM NAAN) [Peculiarities of the formation of the water-thermal regime of drained soils under conditions of climate change (on the example of the Sarny research station of the IWP&LR of NAAS)]. Visnyk ahrarnoi nauky, 1, 68-74. (https://doi.org/10.31073/mivg202001 ). [in Ukrainian]
21. Mazur, V.A., Palamarchuk, V.D., Polishchuk, I.S., & Palamarchuk, O.D. (2017). Novitni ahrotekhnolohii u roslynnytstvi [The latest agricultural technologies in crop production]. Vinnytsia. [in Ukrainian]
Published
2023-12-26
How to Cite
Tarariko, Y., Zosymchuk, M., Stetsiuk, M., ZosymchukО., Danylytskiy, O., Soroka, Y., & Hulenko, O. (2023). FEATURES OF MAIZE GROWING FOR GRAIN IN THE WESTERN FOREST ZONE OF UKRAINE IN THE CONDITIONS OF CURRENT CLIMATE CHANGES. Land Reclamation and Water Management, (2), 83 - 96. https://doi.org/10.31073/mivg202302-367